During the Early Cycladic Period (3rd millennium BC), Amorgos was one of the mort important Aegean cultural centers. It had more than 12 fortified acropolises on hilltops and capes (Markiani was the chief one), as well as cemeteries (Dokathismata, Kapsala). Marble sculpture and figurine making developed at that time when the first monumental sculptures were created and figurine workshops were established. Finally, metalwork and navigation had been spread. All this, along with Amorgos’s key location between the Cyclades and the Dodecanese, made the island’s part in establishing the new culture of the Bronze Age in the Aegean essential.
The rise of the Minoan civilization during the Middle Cycladic Period (2000-1600 BC) turned Amorgos into a trade station within the framework of the Minoan naval supremacy (1600-1450 BC). The founding of Minoa probably dates from that time and is related to the myth identifying it with the location chosen by King Minos as his summer residence. When the Mycenaean civilization flourished (1400-1200 BC), populations from mainland Greece infiltrated Amorgos and spread their Mycenaean koine, exploiting the vital part Amorgos played in communications in the Aegean.
The Geometric period (10th-8th century BC) was marked by Ionian colonists from Naxos, who founded Arkesini, in the southeastern part of Amorgos. In the 7th century BC, Ionian colonists from Miletus founded Aigiali to the north of the western coast. Those two cities, along with Minoa, were the centers of cultural development throughout historical times. They formed the Commonwealth of Tripolis (of the three cities), developed city-states (polis) and managed to flourish. Taking advantage of its location between mainland Greece and the Asia Minor coastline, Amorgos took part in all historical and cultural developments of that time. It fought during the Persian Wars and joined the Athenian League, partially granting Athens its own autonomy. In 337 BC, Macedonians took it over, whereas in 322 the Macedonians won the naval battle of Amorgos against Athenian generals. Contending for Amorgos demonstrates its strategic importance for the rule over the island and mainland Greece. During Roman Times, Amorgos declined and was used as an exile destination. In antiquity, the island was a center producing robes of flax, which was grown on the island and was called amorgos.